Special Education uses a lot of abbreviations and acronyms.  Below is a chart of those most commonly used in IEPs, assessments, and in due process hearings.

Common Abbreviations and Acronyms





Adapted Curriculum

An alternative in the general education curriculum that includes the same content and to some extent the same sequence as regular education.



Any modification to the classroom, instruction or materials that strengthens the student performance or allows participation.


Adaptive Behavior

Usually measured by scales that identify how well a person manages within his or her own environment, such as self-care tasks like dressing oneself or feeding oneself.


Activities of Daily Living

Activities that make a student independent in his or her environment such as dressing, eating, and toileting.


Adapted Physical Education

A service provided by school districts consisting of physical education to students whose disabilities interfere with their participation in mainstream physical education.


Administrator/ Designee

A representative designated by administration, other than a pupil’s teacher.



A term that refers to emotions and attitudes.


Alternative Dispute Resolution

An interest-based approach to resolving disagreements between parties. ADR includes mediation.


Annual Goals

A required component of an IEP. Goals are written for the individual student and can be for a maximum of one year.


Applied Behavioral Analysis

Behavior-analytic approach frequently used to teach student with autism. Discrete Trial Training (DTT methods rely on ABA approach.)



Asperger’s Disorder is a category on the PDD spectrum. Typically, a student with Asperger’s may be relatively high-functioning in some areas, but have difficulties with socialization and communication. A student with Asperger’s Disorder may be eligible for special education.


Assistive Technology Device

Refers to any item, piece of equipment, or product system—whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified, or customized that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of a student with a disability. (See Ed. Code, § 56020.5)


Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder

A condition identified as a medical diagnosis by the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV-Revised (DSM IV-R). Related to condition of Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD). Although it is not an eligibility category under the IDEA, children with this condition may be eligible for special education under other categories or under Section 504. (See Ed. Code, § 56339)


Autism Spectrum Disorder

A group of disorders that includes autism and non-autistic pervasive development disorders (PDD) not otherwise specified (NOS), Fragile X Syndrome, Rett’s Syndrome and Childhood Disintegrative Disorder.



Observation and testing of children to identify the strengths and weakness of the child and to determine progress in order to develop an appropriate education plan. Sometimes called an evaluation. (See Ed. Code, § 56320, et seq.)


Behavior Interventions

The systematic implementation of procedures that results in lasting positive changes in the individual’s behavior. (Ed. Code, §§ 56520 through 56525.)


Behavioral Intervention Case Manager

A designated certificated school district SELPA staff member or other qualified personnel contracted by the school district that has been trained in behavioral analysis and positive behavioral interventions. (See Ed. Code, § 56025.)


Behavioral Intervention Plan

A written document, which is developed when an individual exhibits a serious behavior problem that significantly interferes with the implementation of the goals of the individual’s IEP. The behavioral intervention plan becomes part of the IEP. LEAs are required to develop a BIP in some circumstances for students with behavioral problems. (See Ed. Code, § 56523.)


Center for Autism & Related Disorders

One of many NPAs providing Lovaas type programs.


Categorical Placement

Special Education programs in which students are grouped on the basis of their IDEA eligibility category. Alternative models include “non- categorical” placement and “cross-categorical” placement.


Chapter 26.5

The section of the California Government Code that governs interagency responsibilities for the delivery of mental health services to eligible students under the IDEA and related California laws. The services are frequently referred to by the Assembly bills that created the laws, AB 3632 and AB 2726. (See Gov. Code, §§ 7570; 7572, subds. (a) & (c), 7576, subd. (a) [community mental health services provide the mental health services required in order to provide a FAPE].)


Child Find

Also known as “search and serve.” School districts are required to actively seek out and identify students within their boundaries who may be eligible for special education, and have a system in place to do so. (20U.S.C § 1412(a)(3); Cal. Ed. Code, §§ 56300 through 56302.)



A term that refers to reasoning or intellectual capacity.


Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency

A level of competence required in oral and written language related to literacy and academic achievement.


Community Advisory Committee

A group of parents, community members, and district staff appointed by, and responsible to, the SELPA. It advises the SELPA in the development and implementation of the local plan for special education. It also assists in parent education and public involvement in the development of the local plan and supporting activities on behalf of students with disabilities.


Community Based

When skills are taught at varied locations in the community rather than in the classroom. This is done in order to facilitate generalization and application.


Comp Ed.

Compensatory education and/or related services provided to remedy a denial of FAPE.


Continuum of Services

The range of services that must be available to the students of a school district so that they may be served in the least restrictive environment (LRE).


Core Academics

The required subjects in middle and high school, usually English, reading or language arts, mathematics, science, foreign languages, civics and government, economics, arts, history, and geography. (20 U.S.C. §1401(4), incorporating by reference 20U.S.C. § 7801(11); 34 CFR §300.10.)


Cued Speech

Method of communication used by some persons with hearing impairments. It is used to reduce the ambiguities involved in lip reading. This method is caught in the controversy between teaching deaf children to rely on oral methods of communication or to use sign language.



Student with both hearing and vision disability. (20 U.S.C. § 1401(3) & (30); 34 CFR § 300.8I(2).)


Deaf/Hard of Hearing

Student who has a measurable hearing loss, conductive or sensor neural, in either one or both ears. This limits the normal acquisition of speech and language through the ear. (20 U.S.C. § 1401(3)& (30); 34 CFR §300.8I(3).)



Generally refers to intellectual or skills development not occurring within expected time ranges.


Designated Instruction and Services

Transportation and such development corrective and other supportive services as may be required to assist a student with a disability to benefit from special education. Also known in IDEA as related services. School districts are required to provide whatever DIS (other than medical care which is not for diagnostic purposes) a child needs in order to benefit from his or her special education program. (20 U.S.C. § 1402(26); 34C.F.R. § 300.24; and Ed. Code, § 56363.)


Discrete Trial Training

Type of instruction for children with autism. Based upon ABA principles.


Due Process

All procedural safeguards of public law and related laws and regulations. (20U.S.C. 1415; 34 C.F.R. §104.36.)


California Education Code

The body of statutes that governs education, including special education, in the State of California.


Education for all Handicap Children Act

A federal law more commonly identified as P.L. 94-142. It became effective in 1975 and has been significantly modified by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (1977).


Emotionally Disturbed

An emotional problem that has existed for a period of time, to a marked degree, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. This is a category of eligibility for special education. (20 U.S.C. § 1401(3)& (30); 34C.F.R. § 300.8I(4)(i); Cal. Code Regs., tit. 5, § 3030, subd. (i).)


Expedited Hearing

A provision of the IDEA that streamlines a due process hearing when the student has violated a code of student conduct. (20 U.S.C. § 1415(k), 34C.F.R. § 300.532.)


Extended School Day

A provision for a special education student to receive instruction for a period longer that the standard school day. This sometimes includes “double” kindergarten, later afternoons, or earlier starting times.


Extended School Year

The special education program provided between school sessions when the IEP team determines they are needed to prevent regression of skills. ESY services are required to be included in the IEP and provided to the pupil if the pupil’s IEP team determines, on an individual basis, that the services are necessary for the provision of a FAPE to the pupil. (Ed.Code, § 56345(b)(3), citing 34 CFR § 300.309.)


Fair Hearing

A formal hearing that is requested by parents or school district personnel. Issues that may be considered under the fair hearing procedures are limited to eligibility, assessment, the individualized education program, and placement of individuals with exceptional needs. Also known as “due process hearing.”


Family Education Rights and Privacy Act

A federal law that regulates the management of student records and disclosure of information from those records. FERPA mandates confidentiality of special education matters, including confidentiality of names of special education students. FERPA has its own administrative enforcement mechanism (not covered by due process hearings).


Fine Motor

Functions which require tiny muscle movements. For example, writing or typing would require fine motor movement. Services typically associated with deficits in this area include occupational therapy.


Free Appropriate Public Education

Every school age child with a disability is entitled to an education that meets his/her individual needs, which is at no cost to parents. Specifically, FAPE refers to special education and related services that (1) are provided at public expense, under public supervision and direction, and without charge; (2) meet the standards of the state educational agency, including the requirements of the federal regulations for the education of children with disabilities; (3) include an appropriate preschool, elementary, or secondary school education in the state involved; and (4) are provided in conformity with a qualifying individualized education program. (20 U.S.C. § 1401(9); 34 CFR §300.17; Ed Code § 56040.)


Functional Analysis Assessment

Under California law, school districts must conduct an FAA when a student demonstrates a “serious behavior problem,” which is defined in title 5, Cal. Code of Regs., § 3001 and 3052. An FAA is also referred to as a “Hughes Bill” assessment.


Functional Behavioral Assessment

Under federal law, school districts must conduct an FBA when the student’s behavior impedes his or her own learning or that of others. (34 C.F.R. § 300.346.) FBAs may also be required in relation to some disciplinary actions.


Functional Curriculum

A curriculum focused on practical life skills and usually taught in community-based settings with concrete materials that are a regular part of everyday life. The purpose of this type of instruction is to maximize the student’s generalization to real life use of his/her skills.


Independent Educational Evaluation

A private evaluation typically obtained by parents when they do not agree with the results of an evaluation performed by the LEA. If parents disagree with an LEA’s evaluation, the parents may seek an IEE at public expense. (Cal. Ed. Code, § 56329(b).)


Individualized Education Program

A written statement, mandated by law, that defines a child’s disability, states current levels or educational needs, and specifies annual goals, and evaluation and progress reporting schedule. (20 U.S.C. § 1414(d); 34C.F.R. § 300.22; referring to 20 U.S.C. §§ 1400 to 1482, and Ed. Code, §§ 56032, 56345 & 56345.1.)


IEP Meeting

A gathering required at least annually under IDEA in which an IEP is developed for a student receiving special education. The IEP meeting usually includes the student’s parents and classroom and resource teachers.

IEP Team

Individualized Education Program Team

The team is composed of an administrator or his/her designee, the student’s special education and general education teacher, and the parent. Other members may include the student, those who have assessed the student, and others as appropriate. The IEP Team is responsible for developing, reviewing, or revising an IEP for a child with a disability. (20 USC § 1414(d)(1)(B); 34 CFR §300.23; and Ed. Code, § 56341.)



A placement for a student with a disability that in a classroom with typically developing peers (nondisabled students). The term is related to mainstreaming and LRE.


Individualized Family Service Plan

Similar to an IEP, but an IFSP is for eligible children from birth to age three. IFSP is a document that outlines the services to be delivered to families of infants and toddlers receiving early intervention services pursuant to Part C of the IDEA. (20 U.S.C. § 1436; 34 C.F.R. § 300.24, incorporating by reference 20 U.S.C. § 1436.)


Individuals with Disabilities Education Law Reporter

Specialized full text reporting service publishes policy letter and administrative level actions as well as case law.


Individuals With Exceptional Needs

Individuals from infancy through 21 identified by an individualized education program team as having a disability or condition that requires specialized instruction and/or services. (Ed. Code, § 56026.)


Intellectual Disability

Student with significantly sub-average general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. (20 U.S.C. § 1401(3) & (30); 34 C.F.R. §300.8I(6).)


Interim Alternative Education Setting

(IDEA 20 U.S.C. § 1415(k).) If a special education student violates a code of student conduct, school personnel may consider changing the educational placement of the student to an IAES. Most typically, a school will place a student in an IAES for up to 45 days in special circumstances” discipline cases (weapons, drugs, serious bodily injury) pursuant to 20 U.S.C. § 1415(k)(1)(F).


In-home Interventions

Special education services delivered in a child’s own home.


Learning Disability

An eligibility category under IDEA and California Education Code. Technically known as “specific learning disability,” as listed below. Includes dyslexia. (45 C.F.R. § 1308.14.)


Least Restrictive Environment

A learning environment for a student with exceptional needs that meets his/her learning needs while providing maximum interaction with the general school population in a manner appropriate to the needs of the student and his/her peers. IDEA requires that, to the maximum extent appropriate, children with disabilities shall be educated with children who are not disabled. (20 U.S.C. § 1412(a)(5)(A); 34 C.F.R. § 300.114 (2006); Ed Code, §§ 56031, 56342, subd. (b), & 56364, subd. (a).)


Limited English Proficiency

Also known as English language learner (ELL). Students whose primary language is other than English, who lack competence in the English language, and for whom linguistically appropriate goals, are developed. (20 U.S.C. § 1401(18); 34 C.F.R. § 300.27.)


Local Education Agency

A public board of education or other public authority legally constituted within a state for either administrative control or direction of, or to perform a service function for, public elementary or secondary schools in a city, county, township, school district, or other political subdivision of a state, or for such combination of school districts or counties as are recognized in a state as an administrative agency for its public elementary or secondary schools. (E.g., a school district.) (20 U.S.C. §1401(19)(A), (19)(B), (19)(C); 34 C.F.R. § 300.28(a), (b), (c); Cal. Ed. Code § 56026.3.)



Type of program for students with autism. Program typically involved in providing intensive, one-to-one DTT services to autistic preschoolers for forty hours per week. Based upon research conducted by Dr. Ivar Lovaas at UCLA.



This term refers to IDEA’s preference for the education of every child in the least restrictive environment (LRE) for each student. This term has been most widely used to refer to placement of disabled children in a regular classroom for a portion of each school day.


Manifestation Determination

IDEA 20 U.S.C. § 1415(k)(1)I. Within 10 school days of a decision by a school district to change the placement of a child with a disability based upon a violation of a code of conduct, the district must convene an Individualized Educational Program (IEP) meeting with the purpose of determining whether the conduct was a manifestation of the student’s disability. (34 C.F.R. § 300.530, 300.532(2006).)



A voluntary dispute resolution process that is offered by OAH to all parties involved in special education disputes before OAH. (20 U.S.C. § 1415I and Ed. Code, §§ 56500.3 & 56503.)


Mediation Only

A type of special education case in which the petitioner has requested mediation but not a due process hearing.


Multidisciplinary Conference

A requested gathering under IDEA and is the only body that can make certain determinations – specifically about a child’s eligibility for special education.


Multidisciplinary Team

Using a combination of the skills of several persons with specialized areas of training for a common purpose, i.e. assessment of student to determine eligibility for services.


No Child Left Behind

A federal school reform law that seeks to improve the quality of public schools around the United States.


Nonpublic Agency

Private agency providing related services. Means a private, nonsectarian establishment or individual that provides related services necessary for an individual with exceptional needs to benefit educationally from the pupil’s educational program pursuant to an IEP. NPAs are certified by CDE. (Ed. Code, § 56035.)


Nonpublic Schools

A private, nonsectarian school that enrolls individuals with exceptional needs pursuant to an IEP. NPS’s are certified by CDE. (Ed. Code, § 56034)


Occupational Therapy

A special education related service which addresses areas including fine motor skills, gross motor skills, self help skills, and activities of daily living, sensory integration and sensory processing. (34 C.F.R. § 300.34.)


Office of Administrative Hearings

OAH is an independent state agency designated by CDE to provide mediation and hearing services in special education cases. OAH conducts hearings and provides a neutral forum for fair and independent resolution of matters.


US Office of Civil Rights

An agency of the federal government’s executive branch within the Department of Education. It is charged with enforcing a number of civil rights statutes including Section 504.


US Office of Special Education Programs

A federal office charged with assuring that the various states comply with IDEA.


Other Health Impaired

This is a category of eligibility for special education services. It means having limited strength, vitality or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli, that results in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment, that :(1) is due to chronic or acute health problems such as asthma, ADD or ADHD, diabetes, epilepsy, a heart condition, hemophilia, lead poisoning, leukemia, nephritis, rheumatic fever, sickle cell anemia, and Tourette syndrome; and (2) adversely affects a child’s educational performance. (20 U.S.C. § 1401(3) & (30); 34 C.F.R. § 300.8I(9).)


Orthopedically Handicapped

A severe orthopedic impairment that adversely affects a child’s educational performance, including impairments caused by congenital anomaly (for example, clubfoot, absence of some member, and the like), disease (for example, poliomyelitis, bone tuberculosis, and the like), and other causes (for example, cerebral palsy, amputations, and fractures or burns that cause contractures). (20 U.S.C. § 1401(3) & (30); 34 C.F.R. §300.8I(8).) This is a category of eligibility for special education services.


Physical Therapy

Means services provided by a qualified physical therapist. (34 C.F.R. §300.34I(9).) PT consists of treatment of physical disabilities given by a trained physical therapist that includes the use of massage, exercise, etc., to help the person improve the use of bones, muscles, joints and nerves Physical therapy may be a related service, or DIS, under Ed. Code, §56363.


Pervasive Developmental Disorders

Also known as autistic spectrum disorders. Autism is one type of Pervasive Developmental Disorder. If a child displays some characteristics of autism but does not meet all the criteria, another possible diagnosis is PDD-NOS (not otherwise specified). A child with PDD may be eligible for special education.


Picture Exchange Communication System

Program wherein children with limited communication ability use pictures of items to communicate their wants and needs. Teachers may also set up a picture schedule so the child will understand what his/her daily schedule is.



California Code of Regulations, title 5, section 3042, defines “educational placement” as “that unique combination of facilities, personnel, location or equipment necessary to provide instructional services to an individual with exceptional needs,” as specified in the IEP. (See also 34 C.F.R. § 104.35.)



Refers to a procedure, philosophy or standard that has been formally adopted and is intended to assist in the governance and provision of programs in the school district.


Present levels of Educational Performance

A required IEP component


Prior written notice

When a school district proposes to initiate or change, or refuses to initiate or change, the identification, evaluation, or educational placement of a child, or the provision of a free appropriate public education (FAPE) to the child, the school district must first provide notice to the student’s parents in writing, commonly referred to as “prior written notice.” (20U.S.C. § 1415(b)(3)(A); 34 C.F.R. § 300.503(a)(1)(2006); Ed. Code, § 56500.4, subd. (a).)



The request to identify and assess a child’s possible special education needs: a referral may be made by a parent, teacher, medical personnel, or anyone with specific knowledge of the child. Notice to a school district that a child may be in need of special education. A referral triggers the running of certain timelines for assessment and holding an IEP meeting. (Ed. Code, § 56029.)


Regional Centers

Community agencies throughout California which are mandated to provide services to individuals with qualifying disabilities. Regional Centers provide early intervention services to infants and toddlers with disabilities pursuant to part C of the IDEA, but do not provide special education services under Part B of the IDEA, the part of the IDEA which our due process hearings cover. Regional Centers cannot be parties in special education hearings; a separate hearing process exists.


Regression/ Recoupment

The amount of loss of skills a child experiences over an instructional break (primarily summer vacation) and the amount of time it takes him/her to recover the lost skills. Standards for when regression and recoupment concerns require summer school are developed in case law and in state and federal policy letters.


Resolution Session

Referring to IDEA 20 U.S.C. § 1415 (f)(1)(B). This is a required meeting of parents and “relevant” IEP team members. After a request for mediation and due process hearing is filed, school districts must arrange this session and attempt to cure any problems within 30 days. If the school district does not cure the issue within 30 days, a hearing is scheduled and the 45 day hearing timeline begins.


Resource Placement

(See RSP below). A special education placement for less than half a child’s school day. Such a classroom is usually called a “resource room.”


Resource Specialist Program

Provides students with special education instruction for less than 50 percent of their day. A placement/service wherein a child receives individual or small-group instruction from a “resource specialist,” who is credentialed special education teacher.


Respite Care

A service provided to the families of children who require extraordinary forms of care so that the family can take vacations, handle business affairs, and have some relief from the duties of caring for the child. (It is often provided by the Regional Centers. However, it is not an educational service, so it should not arise under IDEA.)


Section 504

Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 is a federal law that prohibits recipients of federal funds from discrimination against persons with disabilities. (Section 504 complaints must be filed with OCR. Due process hearings under the IDEA do not involve Section 504 claims, and OAH does not have jurisdiction to hear Section 504 claims.)


Severe Discrepancy

Part of the criteria used to determine whether a child is eligible for special education due to a specific learning disability (SLD). California Code of Regulations, title 5, section 3030(j) uses the phrase “severe discrepancy between intellectual ability and achievement in one or more of the academic areas specified in Section 56337(a) of the Education Code”.


Severe Disorder of Language

Students who have a severe impairment in the ability to use or understand language.


Specific Learning Disabilities

A disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written that may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations. (20 U.S.C. § 1401(30); 34CFR § 300.8I(10); Ed. Code, §§ 56337 & 56338.) SLD is an eligibility category for special education.


Special Education Local Plan Area

A service entity identified by the CDE and funded to provide special education services for the school districts that belong to the SELPA. (Ed.Code, § 56440.) SELPAs operate as described in the comprehension plan for special education, which is submitted by the agency to the California Department of Education. A SELPA is a government entity that provides special education services for the school districts that belong to the SELPA. (Ed. Code, § 56440.)


Special Day Class

Special classes that serve pupils with similar and more intensive educational needs. SDCs may enroll pupils only when the nature or severity of the disability of the pupil is such that education in the regular classes with the use of supplemental aids and services cannot be achieved. (Ed. Code, § 56364.2.)


State Education Agency

i.e., California Department of Education. Means the state board of education or other agency or officer primarily responsible for the state supervision of public elementary and secondary schools, or, if there is no such officer or agency, an officer or agency designated by the governor or by state law. (20 U.S.C. § 1401(32); 34 C.F.R. § 300.41.)


Speech and Language Pathologist

A person credentialed by the state to provide speech and language therapy services, which may be a related service, or DIS, under Ed. Code, § 56363.


Student Success Team or Student Study Team

A team of educators, convened at the request of a classroom teacher, parent, or counselor which designs in-class interventions techniques to meet the needs of a particular student, prior to developing an IEP.


Standardized Tests

Tests that have norms reflecting a larger population. Usually these are age or grade based norms reflecting the performance of children throughout the country on the same tests.


Stay Put

Under federal and California special education law, a special education student is entitled to remain in his or her current educational placement pending the completion of due process hearing procedures unless the parties agree otherwise. (20 U.S.C. § 1415(j); 34 C.F.R. § 300.518(a) (2006); Ed. Code, §§ 48915.5, 56505, subd. (d).) The purpose of stay put is to maintain the status quo of the student’s educational program pending resolution of the due process hearing. For purposes of stay put, the current educational placement is typically the placement called for in the student’s IEP, which has been implemented prior to the dispute arising.


Supplementary Aids & Services

Accommodations which could permit a student to profit from instruction in the least restrictive environment. They are required under IDEA. Specifically defined as aids, services, and other supports that are provided in regular education classes or other education related settings to enable individuals with exceptional needs to be educated with nondisabled children to the maximum extent appropriate in accordance with paragraph (5) of subsection (a) of Section 1412 of Title 20 of the United States Code. (20 U.S.C. § 1401(33); Ed. Code, § 56033.5.)


Surrogate Parent

An individual appointed to exercise special education rights on behalf of children with disabilities who do not have a parent able to represent them, generally because the child is a ward of the court. (Cal. Gov. Code § 7579.5; 20 U.S.C. § 1415(b)(2).)


Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communication Handicapped Children

A method of instruction used for children with autism.


Therapeutic Day Program

An instructional placement for students with emotional with emotional disturbance (ED) in which aspects of treatment for the emotional difficulty are incorporated into the school program. Depending on the theoretical orientation of the school, these services may include psychotherapy, behavior management, positive peer culture, or other types of intervention.


Total Communication

An instructional strategy in which teachers instruct children with severe hearing loss both by speaking to them and by using sign language.


Transition Planning

At a minimum, this is planning for adolescents’ post-school lives and must begin by age 16. This involves preparation of a document called an Individual Transition Program (ITP). Good practice may involve planning for earlier transitions as well as incorporating such plans into the child’s IEP. (Ed. Code, § 56045, et seq.)


Traumatic Brain Injury

TBI is an acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects a student’s educational performance. (20 U.S.C. § 1401(3)& (30); 34 C.F.R. § 300.8I(12)


Typically Developing Peers

Preferred terminology used to identify age-level peers who do not have disabilities. Also sometimes referred to as general education peers or non-disabled peers.


Unilateral Placement

Placement by parents acting unilaterally, without approval of the school. A unilateral placement does not constitute the student’s stay put placement. Parents generally cannot receive reimbursement for unilateral placements unless they provided the LEA with ten days advance notice of the placement.


Visually Impaired

An impairment in vision that, even with correction. Adversely affects a student’s educational performance. (20 U.S.C. § 1401(3) & (30); 34C.F.R. § 300.8(c)(13).)